About Armenia and Artsakh (Karabakh)
The Republic of Armenia.
State language: Armenian.
State religion: Christianity, about 95% of the population is adherents of the Armenian Apostolic Church.
Monitary Unit: The Armenian Dram (AMD).
Population: 3 213 thousand: Armenians (90%), Yezids, Russians, Assyrians, Ukrainians, Kurds, Greeks, Georgians and others.
Geographic position: Transcaucasia, the North-Eastern part of the volcanic Armenian upland, surrounded by the ridges of the minor Caucasian mountain chain.
Territory: 29, 8 thousand square kilometer. In the North Armenia borders with Georgia, in the East it borders with Azerbaijan, in the West and the South – with Turkey, in the South –with Iran.
The average altitude above the sea level: 1 800m. The highest peaks are: Aragats-4090 m., Kaputjugh – 3906 m., Azdahak – 3598 m., Spitakasar – 3555 m., Vardenis – 3522 m., Ughtasar – 3300 m.
The longest rivers: Araks, the Akhuryan, the Vorotan, the Hrazdan, the Arpa, the Aghstev, the Debed, the Kasakh.
The largest lake: Sevan.
Climate: of a mountainous nature, continental. The average temperature in the lowlands in January is -5°C, in July it is +25°C; in the highlands the temperature is -6°C and +20°C respectively.
Flora and Fauna: in Armenia there are about 3500 different kinds of plants, of which 106 are endemic. In the North-West there are deciduous forests in which oaks and beeches prevail.
Steppe plants are typical of the lowlands of Armenia. On the rocky and stone soil there grow bushes. The Armenian fаuna includes 76 kinds of mammals, 304 kinds of birds, 44 kinds of reptiles, 6 kinds of amphibian, 24 kinds of fishes and about 10 thousand invertebrates.
In the Northern part of the country there are bears (including the Iranian silvery bears), bobcats, boars, deer, forest and jungle cats. In the mountain steppe there are wolves, badgers, foxes, hares, moufflons and bezoar goats. Very seldom you may come across the snow leopard and the Asian leopard.
There are raccoon dogs acclimatized in Armenia. In the steppe and semi deserts there are numerous rodents, from amphibian there is the Caucasian agama, the Greek tortoise, the Levantine viper, the Armenian viper.
In Armenia there are different kinds of birds: the crane, the stork, the partridge, the odder, the heath cock, the eagle, the griffin, the snowcock, in Sevan there inhabit numerous waterfowl and the Armenian silvery sea-gull.
The trout and the whitefish inhabit the lake. In the mountainous rivers there is the river trout.
The Republic of Nagorno-Karabakh or the Republic of Artsakh.
The state language: Armenian.
State religion: Christianity, about 95% of the population is adherents of the Armenian Apostolic Church:
Monitary Unit: The Armenian Dram (AMD).
Population: 141, 4 thousand people: Armenians (95%), Russians, Ukrainians, Greeks, Georgians and others.
Geographic position: the South-Eastern part of the Minor Caucasia. Territory: 11, 5 thousand square km. In the West Artsakh borders with Armenia, in the North and the East it borders with Azerbaijan, in the South the country borders with Iran.
The average altitude above the sea level: 1100 m.
The highest mountain peaks are: Gomshasar-3724 m., Gzhasar – 3616 m., Tsghuk -3581 m., Mrav – 3343 m., The Great Kirs – 2725 m., Dizapayt – 2540 m..
The longest rivers: Araks, the Vorotan, the Hakary, the Tartar, and the Khachen.
Climate: mild; the greatest part of the territory is characterized by subtropical climate. The average temperature in January is about 0°C, in July it reaches +22°C.
Flora and Fauna: the flora of Karabakh varies greatly. Here you can find about 2 thousand kinds of plants. Plain rocks are to be seen only in the highlands. The mountains in Artsakh are covered with forests, bushes or other herbal plants. In the steppe zone, which is 300-350 m. high above the sea level, there prevail mainly semi desert plants. The sub mountainous and middle mountainous zones are rich in herbal plants. Artsakh is also rich in forests. They make up 36% of the territory of the republic. In the forest glades there grow numerous aromatic flowers. Alpine plants grow above the forest zone, and plants typical of a tundra prevail in the mountainous parts.
In the plains there are gazelles, wild goats and boar. In the forests there are bears, wolves, wild cats, bobcats, foxes, hares, squirrels, porcupines, moles and boars. There are also many kinds of birds such as wild geese, ducks,partridges, pigeons, kites, cuckoos, turtle-doves, peckers, larks, owls, etc. In the plains and sub mountainous zones there are numerous kinds of serpents, tortoises, hedgehogs etc. You can also meet various beetles and butterflies. In comparatively long rivers there are fish.
The Important National Holidays and Memorials are:
1.New Year and Armenian Christmas is observed from December 31 to January 6 (Official Holidays are December 31, January 1 and 2, and January 6).
2. The Armenian Army Day is observed on January 28 (Official Holiday).
3.The Mother Tongue Day is observed on February 21.
4.International Women’s Day is observed on March 8 (Official Holiday).
5.Motherhood, Beauty and Love Day is observed on April 7.
6. Genocide Victims Memorial Day is observed on April 24 (Official Holiday).
7. Labor Day is observed on May 1 (Official Holiday).
8. People’s Volunteer Corps Day is observed on May 8.
9. Victory & Peace Day is observed on May 9 (Official Holiday).
10. Day of the First Republic is observed on May 28 (Official Holiday).
11. Protection of Children’s Day is observed on June 1.
12. Constitution Day is observed on July 5 (Official Holiday).
13. Knowledge Day is observed on September 1.
14. Independence Day is observed on September 21 (Official Holiday).
15. Teachers’ Day is observed on the first Sunday of each October.
16. The Holy Translators’ Day is observed on the second Saturday of October.
17. The Memorial for the victims of the 1988 Earthquake is
observed on December 7.
18. Saint Vartanantz Day is observed on the Thrusday that falls 8 weeks before Easter.